Radiocarbon dating shroud of turin
Some shroud researchers have challenged the dating, arguing the results were skewed by the introduction of material from the Middle Ages to the portion of the shroud used for radiocarbon dating.
The image on the shroud is much clearer in black-and-white negative - first observed in 1898 - than in its natural sepia color.
The front and back views of the head nearly meet at the middle of the cloth.
The image of the "Man of the Shroud" has a beard, moustache, and shoulder-length hair parted in the middle.
A burial cloth, which some historians maintain was the Shroud, was owned by the Byzantine emperors but disappeared during the Sack of Constantinople in 1204.
Although there are numerous reports of Jesus' burial shroud, or an image of his head, of unknown origin, being venerated in various locations before the 14th century, there is no historical evidence that these refer to the shroud currently at Turin Cathedral.
Diverse arguments have been made in scientific and popular publications claiming to prove that the cloth is the authentic burial shroud of Jesus, based on disciplines ranging from chemistry to biology and medical forensics to optical image analysis.
In 1988, three radiocarbon dating tests dated a corner piece of the shroud from the Middle Ages, between the years 12.
and the first certain record (in Lirey, France) in 1390 when Bishop Pierre d'Arcis wrote a memorandum to Pope Clement VII (Avignon Obedience), stating that the shroud was a forgery and that the artist had confessed.
Its most distinctive characteristic is the faint, brownish image of a front and back view of a naked man with his hands folded across his groin.
The two views are aligned along the midplane of the body and point in opposite directions.
It is kept in the Cathedral of Turin, which is located next to a complex of buildings which includes the Royal Palace of Turin, the Chapel of the Holy Shroud (located inside the Royal Palace and formerly connected to the Cathedral) and the Palazzo Chiablese in Turin, Piedmont, northern Italy.
The Catholic Church has neither formally endorsed nor rejected the shroud, but in 1958 Pope Pius XII approved of the image in association with the devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus.