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As potassium and chlorine are both dominantly hosted in the mesostasis, the argon gas derived from radiogenic decay of potassium and chlorine gas from apatite will be closely associated in location and thermal behaviour during a We analysed unirradiated fragments of each of the six nakhlites, with our data yielding concordant cosmogenic exposure ages, and a weighted mean of 10.7 ± 0.8 Ma (2σ, 10% uncertainty on production rates; Fig. The indistinguishable cosmogenic exposure ages attest to the fact that the nakhlites can be launch-paired, indicating they were ejected from a single point source on the Martian surface by a single impact event. 3 and Supplementary Table 3) were used to correct the Ar cosmogenic exposure ages overlap within uncertainty, which is consistent with all of the nakhlites being sourced from the same impact.

Blue data points were analysed at Lawrence Livermore, and red data points were analysed at SUERC.

Their bulk chemistry is basaltic, with abundant clinopyroxene, less common olivine and a rapidly quenched fine-grained mesostasis comprising feldspar and accessory phases, including chlorapatite and volcanic glass, replicate geochronological analyses of the same meteorite disagree; many ages are imprecise and/or fail the robust criteria that define statistical significance (Supplementary Table 2).

As such, the temporal relationships between the different nakhlites remain unclear.

Most manned missions to the Moon have landed in lunar maria, due to their relative flatness compared to lunar highlands.

Rock samples have been returned from both lunar highlands and maria, and they differ significantly in their content.

A non-radiogenic trapped , with most volcanoes being active along divergent and convergent plate boundaries.

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The chlorine-derived isotopes are a particular issue for the nakhlite group of Martian meteorites, which can contain over 1000 ppm Cl hosted in salts and/or chlorine-bearing apatite that can be found in the meteorite's mesostasis (Fig. Panels a–d are scanning-electron microscope images of Nakhla; e–h are from Lafayette, and i–l show a representative area of NWA 5790.The red star in the Elysium region marks the location of a potential source crater for the nakhlites.b Relative characteristics of terrestrial and Martian plume volcanism.The eruptions that caused the lunar maria got their heat source from tidal heating: warmth caused by the slight warping of the Moon as it makes its way around the gravity well of the Earth.Over millions of years, this heat can build up underground until it is sufficient to trigger a volcanic eruption.

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